Code of Judicial Conduct - Canons and Rules
Show all Canons.
A JUDGE SHALL UPHOLD AND PROMOTE THE INDEPENDENCE, INTEGRITY, AND IMPARTIALITY OF THE JUDICIARY, AND SHALL AVOID IMPROPRIETY AND THE APPEARANCE OF IMPROPRIETY.
Promoting Confidence in the Judiciary
A judge shall act at all times in a manner that promotes public confidence in the independence,
and impartiality of the judiciary, and shall avoid impropriety and the appearance of impropriety.
- Public confidence in the judiciary is eroded by improper conduct. This principle applies to both the professional and personal conduct of a judge.
- A judge should expect to be the subject of public scrutiny that might be viewed as burdensome if applied to other citizens, and must accept the restrictions imposed by the Code.
- Conduct that compromises the independence, integrity, and impartiality of a judge undermines public confidence in the judiciary.
- Judges should participate in activities that promote ethical conduct among judges and lawyers, support professionalism within the judiciary and the legal profession, and promote access to justice for all.
- Actual improprieties include violations of law, court rules, or provisions of this Code. The test for appearance of impropriety is whether the conduct would create in reasonable minds a perception that the judge violated this Code or engaged in other conduct that reflects adversely on the judge's honesty, impartiality, temperament, or fitness to serve as a judge.
- A judge should initiate and participate in community outreach activities for the purpose of promoting public understanding of and confidence in the administration of justice. In conducting such activities, the judge must act in a manner consistent with this Code.
Avoiding Abuse of the Prestige of Judicial Office
A judge shall not abuse the prestige of judicial office to advance the personal or
economic interests of the judge or others, or allow others to do so.
- It is improper for a judge to use or attempt to use his or her position to gain personal
advantage or deferential treatment of any kind. For example, it would be improper for
a judge to allude to his or her judicial status to gain favorable treatment in encounters
with traffic officials. Similarly, a judge must not use judicial letterhead to gain an
advantage in conducting his or her personal business.
- A judge may provide a reference or recommendation for an individual based upon the
judge's personal knowledge. The judge may use official letterhead if the judge
indicates that the reference is personal and if there is no likelihood that the use of the
letterhead would reasonably be perceived as an attempt to exert pressure by reason
of the judicial office.
- Judges may participate in the process of judicial selection by cooperating with
appointing authorities and screening committees, and by responding to inquiries from
such entities concerning the professional qualifications of a person being considered
for judicial office.
- Special considerations arise when judges write or contribute to publications of forprofit
entities, whether related or unrelated to the law. A judge should not permit
anyone associated with the publication of such materials to exploit the judge's office in
a manner that violates this Rule or other applicable law. In contracts for publication of
a judge's writing, the judge should retain sufficient control over the advertising to avoid
A JUDGE SHOULD PERFORM THE DUTIES OF JUDICIAL OFFICE IMPARTIALLY, COMPETENTLY, AND DILIGENTLY.
Giving Precedence to the Duties of Judicial Office
The duties of judicial office, as prescribed by law,
shall take precedence over all of a judge's personal and extrajudicial activities.
- To ensure that judges are available to fulfill their judicial duties, judges must conduct
their personal and extrajudicial activities to minimize the risk of conflicts that would
result in frequent disqualification. See Canon 3
- Although it is not a duty of judicial office unless prescribed by law, judges are
encouraged to participate in activities that promote public understanding of and
confidence in the justice system.
Impartiality and Fairness
A judge shall uphold and apply the law,
and shall perform all duties of judicial office fairly and impartially.
- To ensure impartiality and fairness to all parties, a judge must be objective and openminded.
- Although each judge comes to the bench with a unique background and personal
philosophy, a judge must interpret and apply the law without regard to whether the
judge approves or disapproves of the law in question.
- When applying and interpreting the law, a judge sometimes may make good-faith
errors of fact or law. Errors of this kind do not violate this Rule.
- It is not a violation of this Rule for a judge to make reasonable accommodations to
ensure pro se litigants the opportunity to have their matters fairly heard.
Bias, Prejudice, and Harassment
- A judge shall perform the duties of judicial office, including administrative duties, without bias or prejudice.
- A judge shall not, in the performance of judicial duties, by words or conduct manifest bias or prejudice, or engage in harassment, and shall not permit court staff, court officials, or others subject to the judge's direction and control to do so.
- A judge shall require lawyers in proceedings before the court to refrain from manifesting bias or prejudice, or engaging in harassment, against parties, witnesses, lawyers, or others.
- The restrictions of paragraphs (B) and (C) do not preclude judges or lawyers from making reference to factors that are relevant to an issue in a proceeding.
- A judge who manifests bias or prejudice in a proceeding impairs the fairness of the
proceeding and brings the judiciary into disrepute.
- Examples of manifestations of bias or prejudice include but are not limited to epithets;
slurs; demeaning nicknames; negative stereotyping; attempted humor based upon
stereotypes; threatening, intimidating, or hostile acts; suggestions of connections
between race, ethnicity, or nationality and crime; and irrelevant references to
personal characteristics. Even facial expressions and body language can convey to
parties and lawyers in the proceeding, jurors, the media, and others an appearance
of bias or prejudice. A judge must avoid conduct that may reasonably be perceived
as prejudiced or biased.
- Harassment, as referred to in paragraphs (B) and (C), is verbal or physical conduct
that denigrates or shows hostility or aversion toward a person on bases such as race,
sex, gender, religion, national origin, ethnicity, disability, age, sexual orientation,
marital status, socioeconomic status, or political affiliation.
- Sexual harassment includes but is not limited to sexual advances, requests for sexual
favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that is unwelcome.
- "Bias or prejudice" does not include references to or distinctions based upon race,
color, sex, religion, national origin, disability, age, marital status, changes in marital
status, pregnancy, parenthood, sexual orientation, or social or economic status when
these factors are legitimately relevant to the advocacy or decision of the proceeding,
or, with regard to administrative matters, when these factors are legitimately relevant
to the issues involved.
External Influences on Judicial Conduct
- A judge shall not be swayed by public clamor, or fear of criticism.
- A judge shall not permit family, social, political, financial, or other interests or
relationships to influence the judge's judicial conduct or judgment.
- A judge shall not convey or authorize others to convey the impression that any
person or organization is in a position to influence the judge.
- Judges shall decide cases according to the law and facts, without regard to whether particular laws or litigants are popular or unpopular with the public, the media, government officials, or the judge's friends or family.
Competence, Diligence, and Cooperation
- A judge shall perform judicial and administrative duties, competently and diligently.
- A judge shall cooperate with other judges and court officials in the administration of court business.
- Competence in the performance of judicial duties requires the legal knowledge, skill, thoroughness, and preparation reasonably necessary to perform a
judge's responsibilities of judicial office.
- In accordance with GR 29, a judge should seek the necessary docket time, court staff, expertise, and resources to discharge all adjudicative and
- Prompt disposition of the court's business requires a judge to devote adequate time to judicial duties, to be punctual in attending court and
expeditious in determining matters under submission, and to take reasonable measures to ensure that court officials, litigants, and their lawyers cooperate
with the judge to that end.
- In disposing of matters promptly and efficiently, a judge must demonstrate due regard for the rights of parties to be heard and to have issues resolved
without unnecessary cost or delay. A judge should monitor and supervise cases in ways that reduce or eliminate dilatory practices, avoidable delays, and unnecessary costs.
Ensuring the Right to Be Heard
- A judge shall accord to every person who has a legal interest in a proceeding, or that person's lawyer, the right to be heard
according to law.
- Consistent with controlling court rules, a judge may encourage parties to a proceeding and their lawyers to settle matters in dispute but should not
act in a manner that coerces any party into settlement.
- The right to be heard is an essential component of a fair and impartial system of justice. Substantive rights of litigants can be protected only if procedures protecting the right to be heard are observed.
- The judge plays an important role in overseeing the settlement of disputes, but should be careful that efforts to further settlement do not undermine any party's right to be heard according to law. The judge should keep in mind the effect that the judge's participation in settlement discussions may have, not only on the judge's own views of the case, but also on the perceptions of the lawyers and the parties if the case remains with the judge after settlement efforts are unsuccessful. Among the factors that a judge should consider when deciding upon an appropriate settlement practice for a case are (1) whether the parties have requested or voluntarily consented to a certain level of participation by the judge in settlement discussions, (2) whether the parties and their counsel are relatively sophisticated in legal matters, (3) whether the case will be tried by the judge or a jury, (4) whether the parties participate with their counsel in settlement discussions, (5) whether any parties are unrepresented by counsel, and (6) whether the matter is civil or criminal.
- Judges must be mindful of the effect settlement discussions can have, not only on their objectivity and impartiality, but also on the appearance of their objectivity and impartiality. Despite a judge's best efforts, there may be instances when information obtained during settlement discussions could influence a judge's decision making during trial, and, in such instances, the judge should consider whether disqualification or recusal may be appropriate. See Rule 2.11(A)(1).
Responsibility to Decide
A judge shall hear and decide matters assigned to the judge, except when disqualification or recusal is required by Rule 2.11 or other law.
- Judges must be available to decide the matters that come before the court. Although there are times when disqualification is necessary to protect the rights of litigants and preserve public confidence in the independence, integrity, and impartiality of the judiciary, judges must be available to decide matters that come before the courts. Unwarranted disqualification may bring public disfavor to the court and to the judge personally. The dignity of the court, the judge's respect for fulfillment of judicial duties, and a proper concern for the burdens that may be imposed upon the judge's colleagues require that a judge not use disqualification or recusal to avoid cases that present difficult, controversial, or unpopular issues.
Decorum, Demeanor, and Communication with Jurors
- A judge shall require order and decorum in proceedings before the court.
- A judge shall be patient, dignified, and courteous to litigants, jurors, witnesses, lawyers, court staff, court officials, and others with whom the judge deals in an official capacity, and shall require similar conduct of lawyers, court staff, court officials, and others subject to the judge's direction and control.
- A judge shall not commend or criticize jurors for their verdict other than in a court order or opinion in a proceeding.
- The duty to hear all proceedings with patience and courtesy is not inconsistent with the duty imposed in Rule 2.5 to dispose promptly of the business of the court. Judges can be efficient and businesslike while being patient and deliberate.
- Commending or criticizing jurors for their verdict may imply a judicial expectation in future cases and may impair a juror's ability to be fair and impartial in a subsequent case.
- A judge who is not otherwise prohibited by law from doing so may meet with jurors who choose to remain after trial but should be careful not to discuss the merits of the case.
Ex Parte Communications
- A judge shall not initiate, permit, or consider ex parte communications, or consider other communications made to the judge outside the presence of the parties or their lawyers, concerning a pending or impending matter, before that judge's court except as follows:
- When circumstances require it, ex parte communication for scheduling, administrative, or emergency purposes, which does not address substantive matters, or ex parte communication pursuant to a written policy or rule for a mental health court, drug court, or other therapeutic court, is permitted, provided:
- the judge reasonably believes that no party will gain a procedural, substantive, or tactical advantage as a result of the ex parte communication; and
- the judge makes provision promptly to notify all other parties of the substance of the ex parte communication, and gives the parties an opportunity to respond.
- A judge may obtain the written advice of a disinterested expert on the law applicable to a proceeding before the judge, if the judge affords the parties a reasonable opportunity to object and respond to the advice received.
- A judge may consult with court staff and court officials whose functions are to aid the judge in carrying out the judge's adjudicative responsibilities, or with other judges, provided the judge makes reasonable efforts to avoid receiving factual information that is not part of the record, and does not abrogate the responsibility personally to decide the matter.
- A judge may, with the consent of the parties, confer separately with the parties and their lawyers in an effort to settle matters pending before the judge.
- A judge may initiate, permit, or consider any ex parte communication when expressly authorized by law to do so.
- If a judge inadvertently receives an unauthorized ex parte communication bearing upon the substance of a matter, the judge shall make provision promptly to notify the parties of the substance of the communication and provide the parties with an opportunity to respond.
- A judge shall not investigate facts in a matter pending or impending before that judge, and shall consider only the evidence presented and any facts that may properly be judicially noticed, unless expressly authorized by law.
- A judge shall make reasonable efforts, including providing appropriate supervision, to ensure that this Rule is not violated by court staff, court officials, and others subject to the judge's direction and control.
- To the extent reasonably possible, all parties or their lawyers shall be included in communications with a judge.
- Whenever the presence of a party or notice to a party is required by this Rule, it is the party's lawyer, or if the party is unrepresented, the party, who is to be present or to whom notice is to be given.
- The proscription against communications concerning a proceeding includes communications with lawyers, law teachers, and other persons who are not participants in the proceeding, except to the limited extent permitted by this Rule.
- A judge may initiate, permit, or consider ex parte communications expressly authorized by law, such as when serving on therapeutic or problem-solving courts, mental health courts, or drug courts. In this capacity, judges may assume a more interactive role with parties, treatment providers, probation officers, social workers, and others.
- A judge may consult on pending matters with other judges, or with retired judges who no longer practice law and are enrolled in a formal judicial mentoring program (such as the Washington Superior Court Judges' Association Mentor Judge Program). Such consultations must avoid ex parte discussions of a case with judges or retired judges who have previously been disqualified from hearing the matter, and with judges who have appellate jurisdiction over the matter.
- The prohibition against a judge investigating the facts in a matter extends to information available in all mediums, including electronic.
- A judge may consult ethics advisory committees, outside counsel, or legal experts concerning the judge's compliance with this Code. Such consultations are not subject to the restrictions of paragraph (A)(2).
Judicial Statements on Pending and Impending Case
- A judge shall not make any public statement that would reasonably be expected to affect the outcome or impair the fairness of a matter pending or impending in any court, or make any nonpublic statement that would reasonably be expected to substantially interfere with a fair trial or hearing.
- A judge shall not, in connection with cases, controversies, or issues that are likely to come before the court, make pledges, promises, or commitments that are inconsistent with the impartial performance of the adjudicative duties of judicial office.
- A judge shall require court staff, court officials, and others subject to the judge's direction and control to refrain from making statements that the judge would be prohibited from making by paragraphs (A) and (B).
- Notwithstanding the restrictions in paragraph (A), a judge may make public statements in the course of official duties, may explain court procedures, and may comment on any proceeding in which the judge is a litigant in a personal capacity.
- Subject to the requirements of paragraph (A), a judge may respond directly or through a third party to allegations in the media or elsewhere concerning the judge's conduct in a matter.
- The duty to hear all proceedings with patience and courtesy is not inconsistent with the duty imposed in Rule 2.5 to dispose promptly of the business of the court. Judges can be efficient and businesslike while being patient and deliberate.
- This Rule does not prohibit a judge from commenting on proceedings in which the judge is a litigant in a personal capacity. In cases in which the judge is a litigant in an official capacity, such as a writ of mandamus, the judge must not comment publicly.
- Depending upon the circumstances, the judge should consider whether it may be preferable for a third party, rather than the judge, to respond or issue statements in connection with allegations concerning the judge's conduct in a matter.
- A judge should use caution in discussing the rationale for a decision and limit such discussion to what is already public record or controlling law.
- A judge shall disqualify himself or herself in any proceeding in which the judge's impartiality might reasonably be questioned, including but not limited to the following circumstances:
- The judge has a personal bias or prejudice concerning a party or a party's lawyer, or personal knowledge of facts that are in dispute in the proceeding.
- The judge knows that the
judge, the judge's spouse or domestic partner,
or a person within the third degree of relationship to either of them, or the spouse or domestic partner of such a person is:
- a party to the proceeding, or an officer, director, general partner, managing member, or trustee of a party;
- acting as a lawyer in the proceeding;
- a person who has more than a de minimis interest that could be substantially affected by the proceeding; or
- likely to be a material witness in the proceeding.
- The judge knows that he or she, individually or as a fiduciary,
or the judge's spouse, domestic partner, parent, or child, or any other member of the judge's family residing in the judge's household,
has an economic interest
in the subject matter in controversy or in a party to the proceeding.
- The judge, while a judge or a judicial candidate,
has made a public statement, other than in a court proceeding, judicial decision, or opinion, that commits the judge to reach a particular result or rule in a particular way in the proceeding or controversy.
- The judge:
- served as a lawyer in the matter in controversy, or was associated with a lawyer who participated substantially as a lawyer or a material witness in the matter during such association;
- served in governmental employment, and in such capacity participated personally and substantially as a public official concerning the proceeding, or has publicly expressed in such capacity an opinion concerning the merits of the particular matter in controversy;
- was a material witness concerning the matter; or
- previously presided as a judge over the matter in another court.
- A judge shall keep informed about the judge's personal and fiduciary economic interests, and make a reasonable effort to keep informed about the personal economic interests of the judge's spouse or domestic partner and minor children residing in the judge's household.
- A judge disqualified by the terms of Rule 2.11(A)(2) or Rule 2.11(A)(3) may, instead of withdrawing from the proceeding, disclose on the record the basis of the disqualification. If, based on such disclosure, the parties and lawyers, independently of the judge's participation, all agree in writing or on the record that the judge's relationship is immaterial or that the judge's economic interest is de minimis, the judge is no longer disqualified, and may participate in the proceeding. When a party is not immediately available, the judge may proceed on the assurance of the lawyer that the party's consent will be subsequently given.
- A judge may disqualify himself or herself if the judge learns by means of a timely motion by a party that an adverse party has provided financial support for any of the judge's judicial election campaigns within the last six years in an amount that causes the judge to conclude that his or her impartiality might reasonably be questioned. In making this determination the judge should consider:
- the total amount of financial support provided by the party relative to the total amount of the financial support for the judge's election,
- the timing between the financial support and the pendency of the matter, and
- any additional circumstances pertaining to disqualification.
- Under this Rule, a judge is disqualified whenever the judge's impartiality might reasonably be questioned, regardless of whether any of the specific provisions of paragraphs (A)(1) through (5) apply. In many jurisdictions in Washington, the term "recusal" is used interchangeably with the term "disqualification."
- A judge's obligation not to hear or decide matters in which disqualification is required applies regardless of whether a motion to disqualify is filed.
- The rule of necessity may override the rule of disqualification. For example, a judge might be required to participate in judicial review of a judicial salary statute, or might be the only judge available in a matter requiring immediate judicial action, such as a hearing on probable cause or a temporary restraining order. In matters that require immediate action, the judge must disclose on the record the basis for possible disqualification and make reasonable efforts to transfer the matter to another judge as soon as practicable.
- The fact that a lawyer in a proceeding is affiliated with a law firm with which a relative of the judge is affiliated does not itself disqualify the judge. If, however, the judge's impartiality might reasonably be questioned under paragraph (A), or the relative is known by the judge to have an interest in the law firm that could be substantially affected by the proceeding under paragraph (A)(2)(c), the judge's disqualification is required.
- A judge should disclose on the record information that the judge believes the parties or their lawyers might reasonably consider relevant to a possible motion for disqualification, even if the judge believes there is no basis for disqualification.
- "Economic interest," as set forth in the Terminology section, means ownership of more than a de minimis legal or equitable interest. Except for situations in which a judge participates in the management of such a legal or equitable interest, or the interest could be substantially affected by the outcome of a proceeding before a judge, it does not include:
- an interest in the individual holdings within a mutual or common investment fund;
- an interest in securities held by an educational, religious, charitable, fraternal, or civic organization in which the judge or the judge's spouse, domestic partner, parent, or child serves as a director, officer, advisor, or other participant;
- a deposit in a financial institution or deposits or proprietary interests the judge may maintain as a member of a mutual savings association or credit union, or similar proprietary interests; or
- an interest in the issuer of government securities held by the judge.
- A judge shall require court staff, court officials, and others subject to the judge's direction and control to act with fidelity and in a diligent manner consistent with the judge's obligations under this Code.
- A judge with supervisory authority for the performance of other judges shall take reasonable measures to ensure that those judges properly discharge their judicial responsibilities, including the prompt disposition of matters before them.
- A judge is responsible for his or her own conduct and for the conduct of others, such as staff, when those persons are acting at the judge's direction or control. A judge may not direct court personnel to engage in conduct on the judge's behalf or as the judge's representative when such conduct would violate the Code if undertaken by the judge.
- Public confidence in the judicial system depends upon timely justice. To promote the efficient administration of justice, a judge with supervisory authority must take the steps needed to ensure that judges under his or her supervision administer their workloads promptly.
- In making administrative appointments, a judge:
- shall exercise the power of appointment impartially
and on the basis of merit; and:
- shall avoid nepotism and unnecessary appointments.
- A judge shall not appoint a lawyer to a position under circumstances where it would be reasonably to be interpreted to be quid pro quo for campaign contributions or other favors, unless
- the position is substantially uncompensated;
- the lawyer has been selected in rotation from a list of qualified and available lawyers compiled without regard to their having made political contributions; or
- the judge or another presiding or administrative judge affirmatively finds that no other lawyer is willing, competent, and able to accept the position.
- A judge shall not approve compensation of appointees beyond the fair value of services rendered.
- Appointees of a judge include assigned counsel, officials such as referees, commissioners, special masters, receivers, and guardians, and personnel such as clerks, secretaries, and bailiffs. Consent by the parties to an appointment or an award of compensation does not relieve the judge of the obligation prescribed by paragraph (A).
- Unless otherwise defined by law, nepotism is the appointment or hiring of any relative within the third degree of relationship of either the judge or the judge's spouse or domestic partner, or the spouse or domestic partner of such relative.
Disability and Impairment
A judge having a reasonable belief that the performance of a lawyer or another judge is impaired by drugs or alcohol, or by a mental, emotional, or physical condition, shall take appropriate action, which may include a confidential referral to a lawyer or judicial assistance program.
- "Appropriate action" means action intended and reasonably likely to help the judge or lawyer in question address the problem and prevent harm to the justice system. Depending upon the circumstances, appropriate action may include but is not limited to speaking directly to the impaired person, notifying an individual with supervisory responsibility over the impaired person, or making a referral to an assistance program.
- Taking or initiating corrective action by way of referral to an assistance program may satisfy a judge's responsibility under this Rule. Assistance programs have many approaches for offering help to impaired judges and lawyers, such as intervention, counseling, or referral to appropriate health care professionals. Depending upon the gravity of the conduct that has come to the judge's attention, however, the judge may be required to take other action, such as reporting the impaired judge or lawyer to the appropriate authority, agency, or body. See Rule 2.15.
Responding to Judicial and Lawyer Misconduct
- A judge having knowledge
that another judge has committed a violation of this Code that raises a substantial question regarding the judge's honesty, trustworthiness,
or fitness as a judge in other respects should inform the appropriate authority.
- A judge having knowledge that a lawyer has committed a violation of the Rules of Professional Conduct that raises a substantial question regarding the lawyer's honesty, trustworthiness, or fitness as a lawyer in other respects should inform the appropriate authority.
- A judge who receives credible information indicating a substantial likelihood that another judge has committed a violation of this Code should take appropriate action.
- A judge who receives credible information indicating a substantial likelihood that a lawyer has committed a violation of the Rules of Professional Conduct should take appropriate action.
- Judges are not required to report the misconduct of other judges or lawyers. Self regulation of the legal and judicial professions, however, creates an aspiration that judicial officers report misconduct to the appropriate disciplinary authority when they know of a serious violation of the Code of Judicial Conduct or the Rules of Professional Conduct. An apparently isolated violation may indicate a pattern of misconduct that only a disciplinary violation can uncover. Reporting a violation is especially important where the victim is unlikely to discover the offense.
- While judges are not obliged to report every violation of the Code of Judicial Conduct or the Rules of Professional Conduct,
the failure to report may undermine the public confidence in legal profession and the judiciary. A measure of judgment is,
therefore, required in deciding whether to report a violation. The term "substantial" refers to the seriousness of the possible
offense and not the quantum of evidence of which the judge is aware. A report should be made when a judge or lawyer's conduct raises a serious question as to the honesty, trustworthiness or fitness as a judge or lawyer.
- Appropriate action under sections (C) and (D) may include communicating directly with the judge or lawyer who may have violated
the Code of Judicial Conduct or the Rules of Professional Conduct, communicating with a supervising judge or reporting the
suspected violation to the appropriate authority or other authority or other agency or body.
- Information about a judge's or lawyer's conduct may be received by a judge in the course of that judge's participation in an approved lawyers or judges assistance program. In that circumstance there is no requirement or aspiration of reporting (APR 19(b) and DRJ 14(e)).
Cooperation with Disciplinary Authorities
- A judge shall cooperate and be candid and honest with judicial and lawyer disciplinary agencies.
- A judge shall not retaliate, directly or indirectly, against a person known
or suspected to have assisted or cooperated with an investigation of a judge or a lawyer.
- Cooperation with investigations and proceedings of judicial and lawyer disciplinary agencies, as required in paragraph (A), instills confidence in judges' commitment to the integrity of the judicial system and the protection of the public.
A JUDGE SHALL CONDUCT THE JUDGE'S PERSONAL AND EXTRAJUDICIAL ACTIVITIES TO MINIMIZE THE RISK OF CONFLICT WITH THE OBLIGATIONS OF JUDICIAL OFFICE.
Extrajudicial Activities in General
A judge may engage in extrajudicial activities, except as prohibited by law
or this Code. However, when engaging in extrajudicial activities, a judge shall not:
- participate in activities that will interfere with the proper performance of the judge's judicial duties;
- participate in activities that will lead to frequent disqualification of the judge; except activities expressly allowed under this code. This rule does
not apply to national or state military service;
- participate in activities that would undermine the judge's independence,
- engage in conduct that would be coercive; or
- make extrajudicial or personal use of court premises, staff, stationery, equipment, or other resources, except for incidental use permitted by law.
- Participation in both law-related and other extrajudicial activities helps integrate judges into their communities, and furthers public understanding of
and respect for courts and the judicial system. To the extent that time permits, and judicial independence and impartiality are not compromised, judges are
encouraged to engage in appropriate extrajudicial activities. Judges are uniquely qualified to engage in extrajudicial activities that concern the law, the
legal system, and the administration of justice, such as by speaking, writing, teaching, or participating in scholarly research projects. In addition, judges
are permitted and encouraged to engage in educational, religious, charitable, fraternal or civic extrajudicial activities not conducted for profit, even when
the activities do not involve the law. See Rule 3.7.
- Discriminatory actions and expressions of bias or prejudice by a judge, even outside the judge's official or judicial actions, are likely to appear to
a reasonable person to call into question the judge's integrity and impartiality. Examples include jokes or other remarks that demean individuals based
upon their race, sex, gender, religion, national origin, ethnicity, disability, age, sexual orientation, or socioeconomic status. For the same reason, a
judge's extrajudicial activities must not be conducted in connection or affiliation with an organization that practices invidious discrimination.
- While engaged in permitted extrajudicial activities, judges must not coerce others or take action that would reasonably be perceived as coercive. For
example, depending upon the circumstances, a judge's solicitation of contributions or memberships for an organization, even as permitted by Rule 3.7(A),
might create the risk that the person solicited would feel obligated to respond favorably, or would do so to curry favor with the judge.
- Before speaking or writing about social or political issues, judges should consider the impact of their statements under Canon 3.
Appearances before Governmental Bodies and Consultation with Government Officials
A judge shall not appear voluntarily at a public hearing before, or otherwise consult with, an executive or a legislative body or official, except:
- in connection with matters concerning the law, the legal system, or the administration of justice;
- in connection with matters about which the judge acquired knowledge or expertise in the course of the judge's judicial duties; or
- when the judge is acting in a matter involving the judge's, the judge's marital community's, or the judge's domestic partnership's legal or
economic interests, or those of members of the judge's immediate family residing in the judge's household, or when the judge is acting in a fiduciary
capacity. In engaging in such activities, however, judges must exercise caution to avoid abusing the prestige of judicial office.
- Judges possess special expertise in matters of law, the legal system, and the administration of justice, and may properly share that expertise with
governmental bodies and executive or legislative branch officials.
- In appearing before governmental bodies or consulting with government officials, judges must be mindful that they remain subject to other provisions of
this Code, such as Rule 1.3, prohibiting judges from using the prestige of office to advance their own or others' interests, Rule 2.10, governing public
comment on pending and impending matters, and Rule 3.1(C), prohibiting judges from engaging in extrajudicial activities that would appear to a reasonable
person to undermine the judge's independence, integrity, or impartiality.
Acting as a Character Witness
A judge shall not act as a character witness in a judicial, administrative, or other adjudicatory proceeding or otherwise vouch for the character of a person in a legal proceeding, except when duly summoned.
- A judge who, without being subpoenaed, acts as a character witness abuses the prestige of judicial office to advance the interests of another. See Rule
1.3. Except in unusual circumstances where the demands of justice require, a judge should discourage a party from requiring the judge to act as a character
- This rule does not prohibit judges from writing letters of recommendation in nonadjudicative proceedings pursuant to Rule 1.3, comments  and .
Appointments to Governmental Positions
A judge shall not accept appointment to a governmental committee, board, commission, or other governmental position, unless it is one that concerns the law, the legal system, or the administration of justice. A judge may represent his or her country, state, or locality on ceremonial occasions or in connection with historical, educational, or cultural activities.
- Rule 3.4 implicitly acknowledges the value of judges accepting appointments to entities that concern the law, the legal system, or the administration of justice. Even in such instances, however, a judge should assess the appropriateness of accepting an appointment, paying particular attention to the subject matter of the appointment and the availability and allocation of judicial resources, including the judge's time commitments, and giving due regard to the requirements of the independence and impartiality of the judiciary.
Use of Nonpublic Information
A judge shall not intentionally disclose or use nonpublic information
acquired in a judicial capacity for any purpose unrelated to the judge's judicial duties.
- This rule is not intended to affect a judge's ability to act on information as necessary to protect the health or safety of any individual if consistent with other provisions of this Code and/or law.
Affiliation with Discriminatory Organizations
- A judge shall not hold membership in any organization that practices invidious discrimination on the bases of race, sex, gender, religion, national
origin, ethnicity, sexual orientation or other classification protected by law.
- A judge shall not use the benefits or facilities of an organization if the judge knows
or should know that the organization practices invidious discrimination on one or more of the bases identified in paragraph (A).
A judge's attendance at an event in a facility of an organization that the judge is not permitted to join is not a violation of
this Rule when the judge's attendance is an isolated event that could not reasonably be perceived as an endorsement of the
- A judge's public manifestation of approval of invidious discrimination on any basis gives rise to the appearance of impropriety and diminishes public
confidence in the integrity and impartiality of the judiciary. A judge's membership in an organization that practices invidious discrimination creates the
perception that the judge's impartiality is impaired.
- Whether an organization practices invidious discrimination is a complex question to which judges should be attentive at all times, given the prevailing
state and federal law. The answer cannot be determined from a mere examination of an organization's current membership rolls, but rather, depends on how
the organization selects members, as well as other relevant factors, such as the organization's purposes or activities, and whether the organization is
dedicated to the preservation or religious, ethnic, or cultural values of legitimate common interest to its members.
- If a judge learns that an organization to which the judge belongs engages in invidious discrimination, the judge must resign immediately from the
- A judge's membership in a religious organization as a lawful exercise of the freedom of religion is not a violation of this Rule.
Participation in Educational, Religious, Charitable, Fraternal, or Civic Organizations and Activities
Subject to the requirements of Rule 3.1, a judge may participate in activities sponsored by organizations or governmental entities concerned with the law, the legal system, or the administration of justice, and those sponsored by or on behalf of educational, religious, charitable, fraternal, or civic organizations not conducted for profit, including but not limited to the following activities:
- assisting such an organization or entity in planning related to fundraising, and participating in the management and investment of the organization's
or entity's funds, or volunteering services or goods at fundraising events as long as the situation could not reasonably be deemed coercive;
contributions for such
an organization or entity, but only from members of the judge's family,
or from judges over whom the judge does not exercise supervisory or appellate authority;
- appearing or speaking at, receiving an award or other recognition at, being featured on the program of, and permitting his or her title to be used in
connection with an event of such an organization or entity, but if the event serves a fundraising purpose, the judge may do so only if the event concerns the
law, the legal system, or the administration of justice;
- serving as an officer, director, trustee, or nonlegal advisor of such an organization or entity, unless it is likely that the organization or entity:
- will be engaged in proceedings that would ordinarily come before the judge; or
- will frequently be engaged in adversary proceedings in the court of which the judge is a member, or in any court subject to the appellate jurisdiction of
the court of which the judge is a member.
- The activities permitted by Rule 3.7 generally include those sponsored by or undertaken on behalf of public or private not-for-profit educational
institutions, and other not-for-profit organizations, including law-related, charitable, and other organizations.
- Even for law-related organizations, a judge should consider whether the membership and purposes of the organization, or the nature of the judge's
participation in or association with the organization, would conflict with the judge's obligation to refrain from activities that reflect adversely upon a
judge's independence, integrity, and impartiality.
- Mere attendance at an event, whether or not the event serves a fundraising purpose, does not constitute a violation of paragraph (C). It is also
generally permissible for a judge to serve as an usher or a food server or preparer, or to perform similar functions, at fundraising events sponsored by
educational, religious, charitable, fraternal, or civic organizations. Such activities are not solicitation and do not present an element of coercion or
abuse the prestige of judicial office.
- Identification of a judge's position in educational, religious, charitable, fraternal, or civic organizations on letterhead used for fundraising or
membership solicitation does not violate this Rule. The letterhead may list the judge's title or judicial office if comparable designations are used for
- In addition to appointing lawyers to serve as counsel for indigent parties in individual cases, a judge may promote broader access to justice by
encouraging lawyers to participate in pro bono legal services, if in doing so the judge does not employ coercion, or abuse the prestige of judicial office.
Such encouragement may take many forms, including providing lists of available programs, training lawyers to do pro bono legal work, and participating in
events recognizing lawyers who have done pro bono work.
- A judge may not directly solicit funds, except as permitted under Rule 3.7(B), however a judge may assist a member of the judge's family in their
charitable fundraising activities if the procedures employed are not coercive and the sum is de minimis.
- A judge may provide leadership in identifying and addressing issues involving equal access to the justice system; developing public education programs;
engaging in activities to promote the fair administration of justice; and convening, participating or assisting in advisory committees and community
collaborations devoted to the improvement of the law, the legal system, the provision of services, or the administration of justice.
- A judge may endorse or participate in projects and programs directly related to the law, the legal system, the administration of justice, and the
provision of services to those coming before the courts, and may actively support the need for funding of such projects and programs.
Appointments to Fiduciary Positions
- A judge shall not accept appointment to serve in a fiduciary
position, such as executor, administrator, trustee, guardian, attorney in fact, or other
personal representative, except for the estate, trust, or person of a member of the judge's family,
and then only if such service will not interfere with the proper performance of judicial duties.
- A judge shall not serve in a fiduciary position if the judge as fiduciary will likely be engaged in proceedings that would ordinarily come before the
judge, or if the estate, trust, or ward becomes involved in adversary proceedings in the court on which the judge serves, or one under its appellate
- A judge acting in a fiduciary capacity shall be subject to the same restrictions on engaging in financial activities that apply to a judge personally.
- If a person who is serving in a fiduciary position becomes a judge, he or she must comply with this Rule as soon as reasonably practicable, but in no
event later than one year after becoming a judge.
- A judge should recognize that other restrictions imposed by this Code may conflict with a judge's obligations as a fiduciary; in such circumstances, a
judge should resign as fiduciary. For example, serving as a fiduciary might require frequent disqualification of a judge under Rule 2.11 because a judge is
deemed to have an economic interest in shares of stock held by a trust if the amount of stock held is more than de minimis.
Service as Arbitrator or Mediator
A judge shall not act as an arbitrator or a mediator or perform other judicial functions in a private capacity unless
authorized by law.
- This Rule does not prohibit a judge from participating in arbitration, mediation, or settlement conferences performed as part of assigned judicial
duties. Rendering dispute resolution services apart from those duties, whether or not for economic gain, is prohibited unless it is authorized by law.
- Retired, part-time, or pro tempore judges may be exempt from this section. (See Application)
Practice of Law
- A judge shall not practice law. A judge may act pro se or on behalf of his or her marital community or domestic partnership and may, without
compensation, give legal advice to and draft or review documents for a member of the judge's family,
but is prohibited from serving as the family member's lawyer in any adjudicative forum.
- This rule does not prevent the practice of law pursuant to national or state military service.
- A judge may act pro se or on behalf of his or her marital community or domestic partnership in all legal matters, including matters involving litigation
and matters involving appearances before or other dealings with governmental bodies. A judge must not use the prestige of office to advance the judge's
personal or family interests. See Rule 1.3.
Financial, Business, or Remunerative Activities
- A judge may hold and manage investments of the judge and
members of the judge's family.
- A judge shall not serve as an officer, director, manager, general partner, advisor, or employee of any business entity except that a judge may manage or
- a business closely held by the judge or members of the judge's family; or
- a business entity primarily engaged in investment of the financial resources of the judge or members of the judge's family.
- A judge shall not engage in financial activities permitted under paragraphs (A) and (B) if they will:
- interfere with the proper performance of judicial duties;
- lead to frequent disqualification of the judge;
- involve the judge in frequent transactions or continuing business relationships with lawyers or other persons likely to come before the court on which
the judge serves; or
- result in violation of other provisions of this Code.
- As soon as practicable without serious financial detriment, the judge must divest himself or herself of investments and other financial interests that
might require frequent disqualification or otherwise violate this Rule.
- Judges are generally permitted to engage in financial activities, subject to the requirements of this Rule and other provisions of this Code. For
example, it would be improper for a judge to spend so much time on business activities that it interferes with the performance of judicial duties. See Rule
2.1. Similarly, it would be improper for a judge to use his or her official title or appear in judicial robes in business advertising, or to conduct his or
her business or financial affairs in such a way that disqualification is frequently required. See Rules 1.3 and 2.11.
- There is a limit of not more than one (1) year allowed to comply with Rule 3.11(D). (See Application Part IV).
Compensation for Extrajudicial Activities
A judge may accept reasonable compensation for extrajudicial activities permitted by this Code or other
law unless such acceptance would
appear to a reasonable person to undermine the judge's independence,
integrity, or impartiality.
- A judge is permitted to accept honoraria, stipends, fees, wages, salaries, royalties, or other compensation for speaking, teaching, writing, and other
extrajudicial activities, provided the compensation is reasonable and commensurate with the task performed. The judge should be mindful, however, that
judicial duties must take precedence over other activities. See Rule 2.1.
- Compensation derived from extrajudicial activities may be subject to public reporting. See Rule 3.15.Compensation derived from extrajudicial activities
may be subject to public reporting. See Rule 3.15.
Acceptance and Reporting of Gifts, Loans, Bequests, Benefits, or Other Things of Value
- A judge shall not accept any gifts, loans, bequests, benefits, or other things of value, if acceptance is prohibited by
law or would appear to a
reasonable person to undermine the judge's independence,
integrity, or impartiality.
- Unless otherwise prohibited by law, or by paragraph (A), a judge may accept the following:
- items with little intrinsic value, such as plaques, certificates, trophies, and greeting cards;
- gifts, loans, bequests, benefits, or other things of value from friends, relatives, or other persons, including lawyers, whose appearance or interest in
a proceeding pending
before the judge would in any event require disqualification of the judge under Rule 2.11;
- ordinary social hospitality;
- commercial or financial opportunities and benefits, including special pricing and discounts, and loans from lending institutions in their regular course
of business, if the same opportunities and benefits or loans are made available on the same terms to similarly situated persons who are not judges;
- rewards and prizes given to competitors or participants in random drawings, contests, or other events that are open to persons who are not judges;
- scholarships, fellowships, and similar benefits or awards, if they are available to similarly situated persons who are not judges, based upon the same
terms and criteria;
- books, magazines, journals, audiovisual materials, and other resource materials supplied by publishers on a complimentary basis for official use; or
- gifts, awards, or benefits associated with the business, profession, or other separate activity of a spouse, a
or other family member of a judge residing in the judge's household,
but that incidentally benefit the judge.
- gifts incident to a public testimonial;
- invitations to the judge and the judge's spouse, domestic partner, or guest to attend without charge:
- an event associated with a bar-related function or other activity relating to the law, the legal system, or the administration of justice; or
- an event associated with any of the judge's educational, religious, charitable, fraternal or civic activities permitted by this Code, if the same
invitation is offered to nonjudges who are engaged in similar ways in the activity as is the judge.
- Whenever a judge accepts a gift or other thing of value without paying fair market value, there is a risk that the benefit might be viewed as intended to
influence the judge's decision in a case. Rule 3.13 imposes restrictions upon the acceptance of such benefits. Acceptance of any gift or thing of value may
require reporting pursuant to Rule 3.15 and Washington law.
- Gift-giving between friends and relatives is a common occurrence, and ordinarily does not create an appearance of impropriety or cause reasonable persons
to believe that the judge's independence, integrity, or impartiality has been compromised. In addition, when the appearance of friends or relatives in a
case would require the judge's disqualification under Rule 2.11, there would be no opportunity for a gift to influence the judge's decision making.
Paragraph (B)(2) places no restrictions upon the ability of a judge to accept gifts or other things of value from friends or relatives under these
- Businesses and financial institutions frequently make available special pricing, discounts, and other benefits, either in connection with a temporary
promotion or for preferred customers, based upon longevity of the relationship, volume of business transacted, and other factors. A judge may freely accept
such benefits if they are available to the general public, or if the judge qualifies for the special price or discount according to the same criteria as are
applied to persons who are not judges. As an example, loans provided at generally prevailing interest rates are not gifts, but a judge could not accept a
loan from a financial institution at below-market interest rates unless the same rate was being made available to the general public for a certain period of
time or only to borrowers with specified qualifications that the judge also possesses.
- Rule 3.13 applies only to acceptance of gifts or other things of value by a judge. Nonetheless, if a gift or other benefit is given to the judge's
spouse, domestic partner, or member of the judge's family residing in the judge's household, it may be viewed as an attempt to evade Rule 3.13 and
influence the judge indirectly. Where the gift or benefit is being made primarily to such other persons, and the judge is merely an incidental beneficiary,
this concern is reduced. A judge should, however, remind family and household members of the restrictions imposed upon judges, and urge them to take these
restrictions into account when making decisions about accepting such gifts or benefits.
- Rule 3.13 does not apply to contributions to a judge's campaign for judicial office. Such contributions are governed by other Rules of this Code,
including Rules 4.3 and 4.4.
Reimbursement of Expenses and Waivers of Fees or Charges
- Unless otherwise prohibited by Rules 3.1 and 3.13(A) or other law,
a judge may accept reimbursement of necessary and reasonable expenses for travel,
food, lodging, or other incidental expenses, or a waiver or partial waiver of fees or charges for registration, tuition, and similar items, from sources
other than the judge's employing entity, if the expenses or charges are associated with the judge's participation in extrajudicial activities permitted
by this Code.
- Reimbursement of expenses for necessary travel, food, lodging, or other incidental expenses shall be limited to the actual costs reasonably incurred by
- Educational, civic, religious, fraternal, and charitable organizations often sponsor meetings, seminars, symposia, dinners, awards ceremonies, and
similar events. Judges are encouraged to attend educational programs, as both teachers and participants, in law-related and academic disciplines, in
furtherance of their duty to remain competent in the law. Participation in a variety of other extrajudicial activity is also permitted and encouraged by this
- Not infrequently, sponsoring organizations invite certain judges to attend seminars or other events on a fee-waived or partial-fee-waived basis, and
sometimes include reimbursement for necessary travel, food, lodging, or other incidental expenses. A judge's decision whether to accept reimbursement of
expenses or a waiver or partial waiver of fees or charges in connection with these or other extrajudicial activities
must be based upon an assessment of all the circumstances. The judge must undertake a reasonable inquiry to obtain the information necessary to make an
informed judgment about whether acceptance would be consistent with the requirements of this Code and Washington law.
- A judge must assure himself or herself that acceptance of reimbursement or fee waivers would not appear to a reasonable person to undermine the judge's
independence, integrity, or impartiality. The factors that a judge should consider when deciding whether to accept reimbursement or a fee waiver for
attendance at a particular activity include:
- whether the sponsor is an accredited educational institution or bar association rather than a trade association or a for-profit entity;
- whether the funding comes largely from numerous contributors rather than from a single entity and is earmarked for programs with specific content;
- whether the content is related or unrelated to the subject matter of litigation pending or impending before the judge, or to matters that are likely to
come before the judge;
- whether the activity is primarily educational rather than recreational, and whether the costs of the event are reasonable and comparable to those
associated with similar events sponsored by the judiciary, bar associations, or similar groups;
- whether information concerning the activity and its funding source(s) is available upon inquiry;
- whether the sponsor or source of funding is generally associated with particular parties or interests currently appearing or likely to appear in the
judge's court, thus possibly requiring disqualification of the judge under Rule 2.11;
- whether differing viewpoints are presented; and
- whether a broad range of judicial and nonjudicial participants are invited, whether a large number of participants are invited, and whether the program
is designed specifically for judges.
A JUDGE OR CANDIDATE FOR JUDICIAL OFFICE SHALL NOT ENGAGE IN POLITICAL OR CAMPAIGN ACTIVITY THAT IS INCONSISTENT WITH THE INDEPENDENCE, INTEGRITY, OR IMPARTIALITY OF THE JUDICIARY.
Political and Campaign Activities of Judges and Judicial Candidates in General
- Except as permitted by law,
or by Rules 4.2 (Political and Campaign Activities of Judicial Candidates in Public Elections), 4.3 (Activities of Candidates
for Appointive Judicial Office), and 4.4 (Campaign Committees), a judge or a
judicial candidate shall not:
- act as a leader in, or hold an office in, a political organization;
- make speeches on behalf of a political organization or nonjudicial candidate;
- publicly endorse or oppose a nonjudicial candidate for any public office, except for participation in a precinct caucus limited to selection of delegates
to a nominating convention for the office of President of the United States pursuant to (5) below.
- solicit funds for, pay an assessment to, or make a contribution
to a political organization or a nonjudicial candidate for public office;
- publicly identify himself or herself as a member or a candidate of a political organization, except
- as required to vote, or
- for participation in a precinct caucus limited to selection of delegates to a nominating convention for the office of President of the United States.
- personally solicit or accept campaign contributions other than through a campaign committee authorized by Rule 4.4, except for members of the judge's
family or individuals who have agreed to serve on the campaign committee
authorized by Rule 4.4 and subject to the requirements for campaign committees in Rule 4.4(B).
- use or permit the use of campaign contributions for the private benefit of the judge, the candidate, or others except as permitted by law;
- use court staff, facilities, or other court resources in a campaign for judicial office except as permitted by law;
or with reckless disregard for the truth, make any false or misleading statement;
- make any statement that would reasonably be expected to affect the outcome or impair the fairness of a matter
impending in any court; or
- in connection with cases, controversies, or issues that are likely to come before the court, make pledges, promises, or commitments that are
inconsistent with the impartial
performance of the adjudicative duties of judicial office.
- A judge or judicial candidate shall take reasonable measures to ensure that other persons do not undertake, on behalf of the judge or judicial candidate,
any activities prohibited under paragraph (A).
- Even when subject to public election, a judge plays a role different from that of a legislator or executive branch official. Rather than making decisions
based upon the expressed views or preferences of the electorate, a judge makes decisions based upon the law and the facts of every case. Therefore, in
furtherance of this interest, judges and judicial candidates must, to the greatest extent possible, be free and appear to be free from political influence
and political pressure. This Canon imposes narrowly tailored restrictions upon the political and campaign activities of all judges and judicial candidates,
taking into account the various methods of selecting judges.
- When a person becomes a judicial candidate, this Canon becomes applicable to his or her conduct.
- Public confidence in the independence and impartiality of the judiciary is eroded if judges or judicial candidates are perceived to be subject to
political influence. Therefore, they are prohibited by paragraph (A)(1) from assuming leadership roles in political organizations.
- Paragraphs (A)(2) and (A)(3) prohibit judges and judicial candidates from making speeches on behalf of political organizations or publicly endorsing or
opposing candidates for nonjudicial public office, respectively, to prevent them from abusing the prestige of judicial office to advance the interests of
others. See Rule 1.3. These Rules do not prohibit candidates from campaigning on their own behalf, or from endorsing or opposing candidates for judicial
office. See Rule 4.2(B)(2).
- Although members of the families of judges and judicial candidates are free to engage in their own political activity, including running for public
office, there is no "family exception" to the prohibition in paragraph (A)(3) against a judge or judicial candidate publicly endorsing nonjudicial
candidates for public office. A judge or judicial candidate must not become involved in, or publicly associated with, a family member's political activity
or campaign for public office. To avoid public misunderstanding, judges and judicial candidates should take, and should urge members of their families to
take, reasonable steps to avoid any implication that they are using the prestige of the their judicial office to endorse any family member's candidacy or
other political activity.
- Judges and judicial candidates retain the right to participate in the political process as voters in both primary and general elections. For purposes of
this Canon, participation in a caucus-type election procedure does not constitute public support for or endorsement of a political organization or candidate,
is not prohibited by paragraphs (A)(2) or (A)(3) and is allowed by Paragraphs (A)(2) and (A)(5). Because Washington uses a caucus system for selection of
delegates to the nominating conventions of the major political parties for the office of President of the United States, precluding judges and judicial
candidates from participating in these caucuses would eliminate their ability to participate in the selection process for Presidential nominations.
Accordingly, Paragraph (A)(3) and (5) allows judges and judicial candidates to participate in precinct caucuses, limited to selection of delegates to a
nominating convention for the office of President of the United States. This narrowly tailored exception from the general rule is provided for because of the
unique system used in Washington for nomination of Presidential candidates. If a judge or a judicial candidate participates in a precinct caucus, such person
must limit participation to selection of delegates for various candidates.
- Judicial candidates must be scrupulously fair and accurate in all statements made by them and by their campaign committees. Paragraph (A)(10) obligates
candidates and their committees to refrain from making statements that are false or misleading, or that omit facts necessary to make the communication
considered as a whole not materially misleading.
- Judicial candidates are sometimes the subject of false, misleading, or unfair allegations made by opposing candidates, third parties, or the media. For
example, false or misleading statements might be made regarding the identity, present position, experience, qualifications, or judicial rulings of a
candidate. In other situations, false or misleading allegations may be made that bear upon a candidate's integrity or fitness for judicial office. As long
as the candidate does not violate paragraphs (A)(10), (A)(11), or (A)(12), the candidate may make a factually accurate public response. In addition, when an
independent third party has made unwarranted attacks on a candidate's opponent, the candidate may disavow the attacks, and request the third party to cease
- Subject to paragraph (A)(11), a judicial candidate is permitted to respond directly to false, misleading, or unfair allegations made against him or her
during a campaign, although it is preferable for someone else to respond if the allegations relate to a pending case.
- Paragraph (A)(11) prohibits judicial candidates from making comments that might impair the fairness of pending or impending judicial proceedings. This
provision does not restrict arguments or statements to the court or jury by a lawyer who is a judicial candidate, or rulings, statements, or instructions by
a judge that may appropriately affect the outcome of a matter.
- The role of a judge is different from that of a legislator or executive branch official, even when the judge is subject to public election. Campaigns
for judicial office must be conducted differently from campaigns for other offices. The narrowly drafted restrictions upon political and campaign activities
of judicial candidates provided in Canon 4 allow candidates to conduct campaigns that provide voters with sufficient information to permit them to
distinguish between candidates and make informed electoral choices.
- Paragraph (A)(12) makes applicable to both judges and judicial candidates the prohibition that applies to judges in Rule 2.10(B), relating to pledges,
promises, or commitments that are inconsistent with the impartial performance of the adjudicative duties of judicial office.
- The making of a pledge, promise, or commitment is not dependent upon, or limited to, the use of any specific words or phrases; instead, the totality of
the statement must be examined to determine if a reasonable person would believe that the candidate for judicial office has specifically undertaken to reach
a particular result. Pledges, promises, or commitments must be contrasted with statements or announcements of personal views on legal, political, or other
issues, which are not prohibited. When making such statements, a judge should acknowledge the overarching judicial obligation to apply and uphold the law,
without regard to his or her personal views.
- A judicial candidate may make campaign promises related to judicial organization, administration, and court management, such as a promise to dispose of
a backlog of cases, start court sessions on time, or avoid favoritism in appointments and hiring. A candidate may also pledge to take action outside the
courtroom, such as working toward an improved jury selection system, or advocating for more funds to improve the physical plant and amenities of the
- Judicial candidates may receive questionnaires or requests for interviews from the media and from issue advocacy or other community organizations that
seek to learn their views on disputed or controversial legal or political issues. Paragraph (A)(12) does not specifically address judicial responses to such
inquiries. Depending upon the wording and format of such questionnaires, candidates' responses might be viewed as pledges, promises, or commitments to
perform the adjudicative duties of office other than in an impartial way. To avoid violating paragraph (A)(12), therefore, candidates who respond to media
and other inquiries should also give assurances that they will keep an open mind and will carry out their adjudicative duties faithfully and impartially if
elected. Candidates who do respond to questionnaires should post the questionnaire and their substantive answers so they are accessible to the general
public. Candidates who do not respond may state their reasons for not responding, such as the danger that answering might be perceived by a reasonable person
as undermining a successful candidate's independence or impartiality, or that it might lead to frequent disqualification. See Rule 2.11.
- Judicial candidates should be particularly cautious in regard to personal solicitation of campaign funds. This can be perceived
as being coercive and an abuse of judicial office. Accordingly, a general prohibition on personal solicitation is retained with a
narrowly tailored exception contained in Paragraph (A)(7) for members of the judge's family and those who have agreed to serve on
the judge's campaign committee. These types of individuals generally have a close personal relationship to the judicial candidate
and therefore the concerns of coercion or abuse of judicial office are greatly diminished. Judicial candidates should not use this
limited exception as a basis for attempting to skirt the general prohibition against solicitation of campaign contributions.
Political and Campaign Activities of Judicial Candidates in Public Elections
- A judicial candidate in a nonpartisan, public election shall:
- Act at all times in a manner consistent with the independence,
and impartiality of the judiciary;
- comply with all applicable election, election campaign, and election campaign fund-raising laws and regulations of this jurisdiction;
- review and approve the content of all campaign statements and materials produced by the candidate or his or her campaign committee, as authorized by Rule
4.4, before their dissemination; and
- take reasonable measures to ensure that other persons do not undertake on behalf of the candidate activities, other than those described in Rule 4.4,
that the candidate is prohibited from doing by Rule 4.1.
- A candidate for elective judicial office may:
- establish a campaign committee pursuant to the provisions of Rule 4.4;
- speak on behalf of his or her candidacy through any medium, including but not limited to advertisements, websites, or other campaign literature;
- seek, accept, or use endorsements from any person or organization.
- Paragraphs (B) permits judicial candidates in public elections to engage in some political and campaign activities otherwise prohibited by Rule 4.1.
- Despite paragraph (B), judicial candidates for public election remain subject to many of the provisions of Rule 4.1. For example, a candidate continues
to be prohibited from soliciting funds for a political organization, knowingly making false or misleading statements during a campaign, or making certain
promises, pledges, or commitments related to future adjudicative duties. See Rule 4.1(A), paragraphs (4), (10), and (12).
- Judicial candidates are permitted to attend or purchase tickets for dinners and other events sponsored by political organizations on behalf of their own
candidacy or that of another judicial candidate.
- In endorsing or opposing another candidate for judicial office, a judicial candidate must abide by the same rules governing campaign conduct and speech
as apply to the candidate's own campaign.
- Although judicial candidates in nonpartisan public elections are prohibited from running on a ticket or slate associated with a political organization,
they may group themselves into slates or other alliances to conduct their campaigns more effectively.
Activities of Candidates for Appointive Judicial Office
A candidate for appointment to judicial office may:
- communicate with the appointing or confirming authority, including any selection, screening, or nominating commission or similar agency; and
- seek endorsements for the appointment from any person or organization.
- When seeking support or endorsement, or when communicating directly with an appointing or confirming authority, a candidate for appointive judicial
office must not make any pledges, promises, or commitments that are inconsistent with the impartial performance of the adjudicative duties of the office. See
- A judicial candidate
subject to public election
may establish a campaign committee to manage and conduct a campaign for the candidate, subject to the
provisions of this Code. The candidate is responsible for ensuring that his or her campaign committee complies with applicable provisions of this Code and
other applicable law.
- A judicial candidate subject to public election shall direct his or her campaign committee:
- to solicit and accept only such campaign contributions
as are reasonable, in any event not to exceed, in the aggregate amount allowed as provided for by
- not to solicit contributions for a candidate's current campaign more than 120 days before the date when filing for that office is first permitted and
may accept contributions after the election only as permitted by law; and
- to comply with all applicable statutory requirements for disclosure and divestiture of campaign contributions, and to file with the Public Disclosure
Commission all reports as required by law.
- Judicial candidates are generally prohibited from personally soliciting campaign contributions or personally accepting campaign contributions. See Rule
4.1(A)(7). This Rule recognizes that judicial candidates must raise campaign funds to support their candidacies, and permits candidates, other than
candidates for appointive judicial office, to establish campaign committees to solicit and accept reasonable financial contributions or in-kind contributions.
- Campaign committees may solicit and accept campaign contributions, manage the expenditure of campaign funds, and generally conduct campaigns. Candidates
are responsible for compliance with the requirements of election law and other applicable law, and for the activities of their campaign committees.
Activities of Judges Who Become Candidates for Nonjudicial Office
- Upon becoming a candidate for a nonjudicial elective office, a judge shall resign from judicial office, unless permitted by
law to continue to hold judicial office.
- Upon becoming a candidate for a nonjudicial appointive office, a judge is not required to resign from judicial office, provided that the judge complies
with the other provisions of this Code.
- In campaigns for nonjudicial elective public office, candidates may make pledges, promises, or commitments related to positions they would take and ways
they would act if elected to office. Although appropriate in nonjudicial campaigns, this manner of campaigning is inconsistent with the role of a judge, who
must remain fair and impartial to all who come before him or her. The potential for misuse of the judicial office, and the political promises that the judge
would be compelled to make in the course of campaigning for nonjudicial elective office, together dictate that a judge who wishes to run for such an office
must resign upon becoming a candidate.
- The "resign to run" rule set forth in paragraph (A) ensures that a judge cannot use the judicial office to promote his or her candidacy, and prevents
post-campaign retaliation from the judge in the event the judge is defeated in the election. When a judge is seeking appointive nonjudicial office, however,
the dangers are not sufficient to warrant imposing the "resign to run" rule